SYNODICON OF THE HOLY AND ECUMENICAL SEVENTH COUNCIL FOR ORTHODOXY

We have received from the Church of God, that upon this day we owe yearly thanksgiving to God along with an exposition of the dogmas of piety and the overturning of the impieties of evil. Following therefore the sayings of the prophets, honoring the exhortations of the apostles, and being instructed by the histories of the Gospels, we celebrate this day of consecration. For Esaias says: "Be consecrated to God, ye islands, " intimating the churches from the nations. The churches being not simply the edifices and the embellishments of the temples, but rather the congregation of the pious, therein and those who there serve the Divinity with hymns and doxologies. The Apostle advises the same thing, exhorting us, "to walk in newness of life" and that the "new creation in Christ" be renewed. So too, the oracles of the Lord prophesied our condition. "The consecration," they say, "was in Jerusalem, and it was winter"; that is, either a spiritual winter because of the storms of bloody murder and tumult which the nation of the Jews raised against our common Saviour, or that winter which troubles the bodily senses by making the air colder. For indeed, there came upon us a winter, not an ordinary one, but one of truly great evil, brimming over with harshness; but there blossomed forth the first season, the spring of God's grace, in which we have come together to give thanks for the harvest of good things, or as we would. say from the psalms, "Summer and spring hast Thou fashioned, be mindful of this Thy creation," For verily, those enemies who reproached the Lord and utterly dishonored His holy worship in the holy icons, were both arrogant and high-minded in impieties, and were cast down by the God of marvels, and He leveled to the ground their insolent apostasy.

Nor did He overlook the voice of those crying to Him: "Remember, O

Lord, the reproach of Thy servant which I have endured in my bosom from

many nations; wherewith Thine enemies have reproached, O Lord, wherewith

they have reproached the recompense of Thy Christ. " The recompense of

Christ is those who have been purchased by His death and who have believed

in Him, both by the preaching of the word and by the representation in icons,

whereby the redeemed know the great work of His Oeconomy both the Cross

and all His sufferings and miracles both before the Cross and after it; from

which the imitation of His sufferings passes over unto the apostles and thence

to the martyrs, and descending from them to the confessors and ascetics. This

reproach wherewith the enemies of the Lord reproached, wherewith they

reproached the recompense of His Christ, was remembered by God, Who was

besought by His own compassion, and Who yielded to the prayers of His Mother,

and moreover His apostles and all His saints who, with Him, were rendered

of no account by the insolent defamation of the holy icons, so that even as the

saints suffered in the flesh, so might they, as it were, suffer with Him the insults

directed against the holy icons God then wrought later that which had been

counseled today, and He subsequently brought about that which He had previously

performed; previously, because after many years during which the holy

icons were spurned and dishonored, He re-established true piety. But now, for

a second time, after a short thirty years of harassment, He has delivered us

unworthy ones from adversity, redeeming us from those who afflicted us, and

establishing the free proclamation of piety, the steadfastness of the worship of

icons, and this Festival which brings all of us salvation. For in the icons we see

the sufferings of our Master for us - the Cross, the grave, Hades slain and pillaged

- the contests of the martyrs, the crowns, that very salvation which our

First Prize-giver and Contest-master and Crown-bearer wrought in the midst of

the earth. This festival we celebrate today; we rejoice together and are glad with

prayers and supplicatory processions, and we cry out with psalms and hymns:

Without (3)

What God is as great as our God? Thou art our God, who alone worketh

wonders.

Without

For Thou didst put to scorn those who slighted Thy Glory, and didst show

forth as cowards and fugitives those who were audacious and impudent

against the icons.

But thanksgiving unto God and the Master's trophy of victory against the

adversaries is proper here; as for the contests and struggles against the

iconoclasts, another discourse written more fully will declare them. Therefore,

as a kind. of rest after the desert sojourn, on the journey to reach the noetic

Jerusalem, and not only in imitation of Moses, but also in obedience to the

Divine Command, we considered it right as well as obligatory to inscribe on the

hearts of our brethren, as on a pillar constructed of large fitted stones smoothed

for the reception of inscriptions, both the blessings which are due to those who

keep the law, and also the curses under which transgressors put themselves.

Wherefore we say thus:

Without

To them who confess with word, mouth, heart, and mind, and with both writing

and icons the incarnate advent of God the Word,

Eternal Memory (3)

To them who acknowledge in Christ one Hypostasis, with different essences,

and attribute to the one Hypostasis both the created and uncreated, the

visible and invisible, the passible and impassible, the circumscribable and uncircumscribable;

and then who apply on the one hand, to the Divine essence

uncreatedness and the like, and, on the other hand, acknowledge with word and

icons that the human nature has the other attributes accompanying circumscription,

Eternal Memory (3)

To them who believe and preach, that is proclaim, doctrines by means of

writings and deeds by means of forms, and link them in a single proclamation,

whereby the truth is affirmed in word and icon,

Eternal Memory (3)

To them who with words sanctify their lips, and their hearers by means of

those words, and who both know and preach that the eyes of the beholders

are similarly sanctified through them, the mind is lifted to God-knowledge, as

well as by the divine temples also, the sacred vessels, and the other precious

ornaments,

Eternal Memory (3)

To them who understand that the rod and the tablets, the ark and the lampstand,

and. the table and the censer, from aforetime depicted and prefigured

the All-Holy Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, and that these things prefigured

her and not that she became these things; for she was born a maiden and

remained a virgin after giving birth to God, and that for this reason she is represented

as a maiden in the icons rather than obscurely depicted by types,

Eternal Memory (3)

To them who know and accept and believe concerning those things which

the choir of the prophets saw, and narrated, that the Divinity Himself

formed and imprinted these prophetic visions, and to those who hold by the

venerable icons, and that fast both the written and unwritten tradition which

extends from the apostles to the fathers, and. who for this cause depict and

honor holy things in icons,

Eternal Memory (3)

To them who understand Moses saying, "Take heed to yourselves, that in the

day when the Lord God spoke in Horeb on the mountain, ye heard the

sound of words, but ye saw no likeness" and who know to answer correctly that

if we saw anything, truly did we see it, as the son of thunder has taught us, "that

which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with

our eyes, and which our hands have touched, concerning the Word of life, to

these things do we bear witness"; and again as the other disciples of the Word

say, "that we both ate with Him and. drank with Him, not only before the Passion,

but even after the Passion and Resurrection"; to those therefore, who have

been strengthened, by God to distinguish between the commandment in the

Law and the teaching which came with Grace, and between that which was

invisible in the former, but both visible and tangible in the latter, and who for

this cause depict and worship in icons these visible and tangible realities,

Eternal Memory (3)

As the prophets have seen, as the apostles have taught, as the Church has

received, as the teachers have set forth in dogmas, as the whole world has

understood, as Grace has shone forth, as the truth was demonstrated, as falsehood

was banished, as wisdom was emboldened, as Christ has awarded; thus do

we believe, thus we speak, thus we preach Christ our true God and His saints,

honoring them in words, in writings, in thoughts, in sacrifices, in temples, and

in icons, worshipping and respecting the One as God and Master, and honoring

the others, and apportioning relative worship to them, because of our common

Master for they are His genuine servants,

Without

This is the Faith of the apostles, this is the Faith of the fathers, this is the

Faith of the Orthodox, this Faith hath established the whole world.

WE NOW TAKE OCCASION TO ACCLAIM FRATERNALLY AND

WITH FILIAL AFFECTION THE PREACHERS OF PIETY UNTO THE

GLORY AND HONOR OF GODLINESS, FOR WHICH THEY STRUGGLED,

AND, WE SAY,

Below

To Germanus, Tarasius, Nicephorus and Methodius who are truly high

priests of God and champions and teachers of Orthodoxy,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Ignatius, Photios, Stephen, Anthony, and Nicholas the most holy and

Orthodox patriarchs,

Eternal Memory (3)

All that was written or spoken against the holy Patriarchs Germanus, Tarasius,

Nicephorus, and Methodius, Ignatius, Photios, Nicephorus, Anthony

and Nicholas,

Anathema (3)

All that was innovated and enacted, or that after this shall be enacted, outside

of Church tradition and the teaching and institution of the holy and

ever-memorable fathers,

Anathema (3)

To Stephen the New, the righteous martyr and confessor,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Efthymios, Theophilos, Emilianos, the ever-memorable confessors and

archbishops,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Theophylactos, Peter, Michael and Joseph, the blessed metropolitans,

Eternal Memory (3)

To John, Nicholas, and George, the thrice-glorious confessors and archbishops,

and all the bishops who were of one mind with them,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Theodore, the all-righteous abbot of the Studium,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Isaacios the wonderworker, the confessors Theodore and Theophanes

the Branded, and Ioannikios the most prophetic,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Hilarion, the most righteous archimandrite and abbot of the Monastery

of the Dalmatians,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Symeon the most righteous stylite,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Theophanes the most righteous abbot of the Monastery of the Great

Field,

Eternal Memory (3)

These acclamations, like blessings of fathers, are inherited by us, their sons,

who zealously emulate their piety; but likewise do the curses seize upon

those parricides and disdainers of the Master's commandments. Wherefore, we

in unison, since we constitute the plenitude of piety, lay upon the impious the

curse which they have put upon themselves.

To them who in words accept the Oeconomy of the Incarnation of the Word

of God, but will not tolerate its representation by icons, and thus in word

they make a pretense of accepting, but in fact deny our salvation,

Anathema (3)

To them who because of a mistaken adherence to the term uncircumscribed,

wish not to depict in icons Christ, our True God, Who like us partook of

flesh and blood, and thus show themselves to be Docetists,

Anathema (1)

To them who accept the visions of the prophets, albeit unwillingly, but who

do not - O wonder! - accept the images seen by the prophets even before

the Incarnation of the Word, but vainly say that the intangible and unseeable

essence was seen by the prophets, or even concede that these truly were

revealed to the prophets as images and types and forms, but still cannot endure

to depict in icons the Word. become man and His sufferings for our sake,

Anathema (1)

To them who hear the Lord Who said that "If ye believed in Moses, ye would

have believed in me" and who understand the saying of Moses, "The Lord

our God will raise up for you a prophet like unto me, " but who, on the one

hand, say that they accept the Prophet, yet on the other hand, do not permit the

depiction in icons of the grace of the Prophet and our universal salvation such

as, He was seen, as He mingled with mankind, and worked many healings of

passions and diseases, and such as He was crucified, was buried., and arose, in

short, all that He both suffered and wrought for us; to those, therefore, who

cannot endure to gaze upon these universal and saving deeds in icons, neither

honor nor worship them,

Anathema (3)

To them who persist in the heresy of denying icons, or rather the apostasy of

denying Christ, and are not counseled by the Mosaic law to be led to their

salvation, nor are they convinced to return to piety by the apostolic teachings,

nor are they induced by patristic exhortations and explanations to abandon

their deception, nor are they persuaded by the agreement of the Churches of

God throughout the whole world, but once for all have joined. themselves to the

portion of the Jews and Greeks; for those things wherewith the latter directly

blaspheme the prototype, the former likewise have not blushed to insult in His

icon Him that is depicted therein; therefore, to them who are incorrigibly possessed

by this deception, and have their ears covered towards every Divine word

and spiritual teaching, as already being putrified members, and having cut

themselves off from the common body of the Church,

Anathema (3)

To Anastasios, Constantine and Nicetas, who, being unhallowed guides to

perdition, were the originators of heresies during the reign of the Isaurians,

Anathema (3)

To Theodotus, Anthony and John, mutual instigators of evils who succeeded

each other in their impiety,

Anathema (3)

To Paul, who turned back into a Saul, and to Theodore, surnamed Gastes,

and to Stephan Molytes, and furthermore to Theodore Crithinus and Leon

Laloudius, and. to whomever shares the like impiety with the aforementioned,

whatever his rank might be, in the clergy or in some office or in whatever occupation

he pursues; to all such who continue in their impiety,

Anathema (3)

To Gerontios, who, having his origins in Lampe but vomiting forth in Crete

the venom of his loathsome heresy, called himself the anointed one for the

overturning - fie! - of the saving Oeconomy of Christ, and to his perverted doctrines

and writings and to those who agree with him,

Anathema (3)

THE ELEVEN CHAPTERS AGAINST JOHN ITALUS

To them who attempt by whatever means to introduce a new controversy or

teaching into the ineffable Oeconomy of our Incarnate Saviour and God,

and who seek to penetrate the way wherein God the Word was united to the

human substance and for what reason He deified the flesh He assumed, and

who, by using dialectical terminology of nature and adoption, try to dispute

about the transcendent innovation of His divine and human natures,

Anathema (3)

To them who profess piety yet shamelessly, or rather impiously, introduce

into the Orthodox and Catholic Church the ungodly doctrines of the

Greeks concerning the souls of men, heaven and earth, and the rest of creation,

Anathema (3)

To them who prefer the foolish so-called wisdom of the secular philosophers

and follow its proponents, and who accept the metempsychosis of human

souls or that, like the brute animals, the soul is utterly destroyed and departs

into nothingness, and who thus deny the resurrection, judgment, and the final

recompense for the deeds committed during life,

Anathema (3)

To them who dogmatize that matter and the Ideas are without beginning or

are co-eternal with God, the Creator of all, and that heaven and earth and

the other created things are everlasting, unoriginate and immutable, thus legislating

contrary to Him Who said: 'Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my

words will not pass away'; to them who thus speak vain and earthly things drawing

down the Divine curse upon their own heads,

Anathema (3)

To them who maintain that although the wise men of the Greeks and the

foremost of the heresiarchs were put under anathema by the Seven Holy

and Catholic Councils and by all the fathers that shone forth in Orthodoxy as

ones alien to the Catholic Church because of the adulterations and loathsome

superabundance of error in their teachings, yet they are exceedingly more excellent,

both here and in the future judgment, than those pious and orthodox men

who, by human passion or by ignorance, have committed some offense,

Anathema (3)

To them who do not accept with a pure and simple faith and with all their

soul and heart the extraordinary miracles of our Saviour and God and of

the holy Theotokos who without stain gave birth to Him, and of the other saints,

but who attempt by sophistic demonstration and words to traduce them as being

impossible, or to misinterpret. them according to their own way of thinking, and

to present them according to their own opinion,

Anathema (3)

To them who undertake Greek studies not only for purposes of education

but also follow after their vain opinions, and are so thoroughly convinced

of their truth and validity that they shamelessly introduce them and teach them

to others, sometimes secretly and sometimes openly,

Anathema (3)

To them who of themselves refashion creation by means of mythical fabrications

and accept the Platonic ideas as veritable, saying that matter, being

self-subsistent, is given form by these ideas, and who thereby clearly calumniate

the free will of the Creator Who brought all things into being out of non-being

and Who, as Maker, established the beginning and end of all things by His

authority and sovereignty,

Anathema (3)

To them who say that in the last and general resurrection men will be raised

up and judged in other bodies and not in those wherewith they passed this

present life, inasmuch as these were corrupted and destroyed, and who babble

empty and vain things against Christ our God Himself, and His disciples, our

teachers, who taught that in the very same body in which men lived, in the same

shall they also be judged; furthermore the great Apostle Paul in his discourse

concerning the resurrection distinctly and with examples restates the same truth

more extensively and refutes as mindless those who think differently; therefore,

to them who contravene such dogmas and doctrines,

Anathema (3)

To them who accept and transmit the vain Greek teachings that there is a

pre-existence of souls and teach that all things were not produced and did.

not come into existence out of non-being, that there is an end to the torment or

a restoration again of creation and of human affairs, meaning by such teachings

that the Kingdom of the Heavens is entirely perishable and fleeting, whereas

the Kingdom is eternal and indissoluble as Christ our God Himself taught and

delivered to us, and as we have ascertained from the entire Old and New Scripture,

that the torment is unending and the Kingdom everlasting to them who by

such teachings both destroy themselves and. become agents of eternal condemnation

to others,

Anathema (3)

To those pagan and heterodox doctrines and teachings introduced in contempt

of the Christian and Orthodox faith or in opposition to the Catholic

and blameless faith of the Orthodox, by John Italus and by his disciples who

shared in his ruin,

Anathema (1)

AGAINST NILOS

To those doctrines impiously dogmatized by the pseudo-monk Nilos and to

all who share them,

Anathema (3)

AGAINST THE BOGOMILS

To them who do not confess one nature in the holy, coessential, undivided

and coeternal Trinity, of one honor and of one throne, that is, the Father,

and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, but who affirm that the Son is some adventitious

angel called Satanael or Amen; and furthermore, who say that the Holy

Spirit, equal in power with the Father and the Son, is different from or inferior

to Them in nature; to such men, therefore, be

Anathema (1)

To them who do not confess that God is the Creator of heaven and earth and

of all creatures, the Maker of Adam and the Fashioner of Eve, but say that

the Adversary is the ruler and creator of all and the fashioner of human nature;

to such men,

Anathema (1)

To them who do not confess that the Word and Son of God was begotten

from the Father without change before the ages, and that in these latter

times out of His abundant loving kindness, He became incarnate as a man from

the immaculate Theotokos Mary, taking upon Himself for our salvation all that

pertains to us save sin, and to them who consequently do not partake of His

holy and immortal Mysteries with fear, inasmuch as they consider them as mere

bread and common wine rather than the very flesh of the Master and His holy

and precious Blood shed for the life of the world; to such men,

Anathema (1)

To them who do not worship the Cross of our Lord and God and Saviour

Jesus Christ as the salvation and glory of the whole world and as that which

annulled and utterly destroyed the machinations and weapons of the enemy,

and thereby redeemed creation from the idols and manifested victory to the

world, but hold the Cross to be a tyrannical weapon; to such men,

Anathema (1)

AGAINST EUSTRATIOS, AND LEO OF CHALCEDON

To them who introduce a heretical, new understanding concerning the ineffable

Oeconomy of the Incarnation of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus

Christ, and say or think that Christ's human nature, like a servant, worships the

unapproachable Divinity and everlastingly retains servitude as an essential and

inseparable mark,

Anathema (3)

To them who do not employ with all reverence the division made in pure

thought for the purpose of showing only the difference between the ineffably

conjoined two natures in Christ - which natures are united in Him without

confusion and without division - but employ this distinction improperly, and say

that this human nature which Christ has assumed is different not only in nature

but also in dignity, and that it worships God and offers a servile ministry, and is

obliged to honor God, in the same manner as the ministering spirits which serve

and worship God as servants; and to them who identify the great High Priest

with the assumed human nature itself, rather than with the Word of God Who

became man, and by such means they dare to hypostatically divide the one

Christ, our Lord and God,

Anathema (3)

AGAINST BASILAKI, SOTERICHOS, AND OTHERS

To them who say that the sacrifice of His precious Body and Blood offered

for our salvation by our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ at the time

of His world-saving Passion was offered up by Him to God the Father, and that

He thus fulfilled the ministry of High Priest for us in His humanity (inasmuch

as He is at the same time God and Sacrificer and Victim, according to St. Gregory

the Theologian), but who then say that He, the Only Begotten, along with

the Holy Spirit, did not Himself accept the sacrifice as God together with the

Father; hence by such teachings they estrange from the divine equality of honor

and dignity both God the Word and the Spirit, the Comforter, Who is of one

essence and of one glory with Him,

Anathema (3)

To them who do not accept that the sacrifice which is offered daily by those

who have received from Christ the priestly service of the Divine Mysteries,

is in fact offered to the Holy Trinity, and thereby contradict the sacred and

divine fathers, Basil and Chrysostom, and other Godbearing fathers who all

agree in both their words and writings,

Anathema (3)

To them who hear the Saviour saying concerning the priestly service of the

Divine Mysteries delivered by Him: "Do this in remembrance of Me, " but

they do not understand "remembrance" correctly, but dare to say that the daily

sacrifice offered by those who perform the sacred service of the Divine Mysteries,

just as our Saviour, the Master of all, delivered to us, reenacts only symbolically

and figuratively the Sacrifice of His own Body and Blood which our Saviour

had offered on the Cross as a ransom and redemption of our common

human nature; and for this reason, since they introduce the doctrine that this is

a different sacrifice from the one originally consummated by the Saviour and

refers to it merely symbolically and figuratively, they bring to naught the Mystery

of the awesome and divine priestly service whereby we receive the earnest

of the future life; therefore, to them who deny what is staunchly proclaimed by

our divine Father John Chrysostom who says in many commentaries on the sayings

of the Great Paul that the sacrifice is identical, that both are one and the

same,

Anathema (3)

To them who invent and introduce intervals of time into the reconciliation

of human nature with the Divine and blessed nature of the lifegiving and

wholly inviolate Trinity, and legislate that we were first reconciled to the onlybegotten

Word by His assumption of humanity and then afterwards to God the

Father during the salutary Passion of the Saviour Christ; and thus they divide

what is indivisible according to the divine and blessed fathers who taught that

the Only-begotten reconciled us to Himself through the entire Mystery of the

Oeconomy, of the Incarnation and through Himself and in Himself to God the

Father and, it follows necessarily, to the all-holy and life-creating Spirit; therefore

to them who invent these new and strange doctrines we say,

Anathema (3)

To them who do not correctly understand the divine voices of the holy teachers

of the Church of God and who attempt to misinterpret and pervert

those things clearly and manifestly spoken in them by the grace of the Holy

Spirit,

Anathema (3)

To them who accept, among other interpretations by the holy fathers, that

the words of our true God and Lord, our Saviour Jesus Christ, 'My Father

is greater than I' also appertain to His humanity, wherein He suffered, as the

holy fathers distinctly preach in many places in their God-inspired words; to

them moreover who say that the same Christ suffered in His own flesh, be

Eternal Memory (3)

To them who understand and speak of the deification of the assumed nature

as implying a change of the human nature into the Divine Nature and do

not believe that, because of this union, the Body of the Lord shares the Divine

rank and majesty and consequently is worshipped with one worship of God the

Word Who assumed it, nor do they believe that it shares in the one honor, glory,

and throne, being life-creating, and equal in majesty with God the Father and

the All-Holy Spirit - not that it became coessential with God. so as to lose its

natural properties, of creaturehood, circumscription, and of the other properties

seen in the human nature of Christ - but they believe rather that it is

changed into.the very essence of the Divinity and, by this, imply that either the

incarnation and passion of the Lord were not true, but a fantasy, or that the

Divinity of the OnlyBegotten suffered passion,

Anathema (3)

To them who say that the flesh of the Lord is exalted by this union and that

it transcends every honor since by this complete union it became

immutably one with God, without change, without confusion, and unaltered by

reason of the hypostatic union, inseparably and continuously abiding in God the

Word Who assumed it, and that it is honored with a glory equal to His and worshipped

with one worship and is established on the royal and divine Throne at

the right hand of God the Father, and is endowed with the attributes of Divinity,

while the properties of the two natures are preserved,

Eternal Memory (3)

To them who reject the teachings which were pronounced for the establishment

of the true doctrines of the Church of God by the Holy Fathers

Athanasios, Cyril, Ambrose, Amphilochios the God-proclaiming, Leo the most

holy Archbishop of Old Rome, and by all the others, and furthermore, who do

not embrace the Acts of the Oecumenical Councils, especially those of the

Fourth, I say, and of the Sixth,

Anathema (3)

To them who do not accept the saying of our true God and Saviour Jesus

Christ, 'The Father is greater than I' as the saints have diversely interpret-

ed it, some saying that it refers to His Divinity because of His generation from

the Father, and other saints saying that it refers to the natural properties of the

flesh, assumed by Him and which is enhypostatic in His divinity, namely creaturehood,

circumscription, mortality and the other natural and blameless passions

because of which the Lord called the Father greater than Himself; but who

contrarily say, that the Lord's words are only understandable when the flesh is

considered in abstract thought as separated from the Godhead as though it had

never been united; therefore, to them who do not receive this method - that is,

the conceptual division in abstract thought - as used by the holy fathers who

employed it only whenever servitude and ignorance are mentioned, since they

could not endure that the flesh of Christ which is one with God and of the same

honor be blasphemed by using such words, but who instead say that the natural

properties are to be understood merely conceptually by an act of abstract

thought although the natural properties truly belong to the Lord's flesh which

is enhypostatic to His Divinity and remains united indivisibly, and they dogmatize

the same concerning things unsubstantial and false, as they do for the substantial

and true,

Anathema (3)

AGAINST CONSTANTINE THE BULGARIAN

To Constantine of Bulgaria, who was metropolitan of Corfu, who evilly and

impiously dogmatized concerning the saying of our true God and Saviour

Jesus Christ, 'The Father is greater than I, ' and did not believe and say that the

holy and Godbearing fathers understand this saying in diverse pious senses, as

well as in this sense: that the flesh which was assumed by the Only-Begotten Son

of God from the holy Virgin and Theotokos and which subsisted in His Divinity

without confusion after the indivisible union, retained its own properties, and

for this reason the Lord called the Father greater than Himself; Who with His

assumed human nature (since it is at one with God and of the same glory as

God) is in one worship both worshipped and glorified together with the Father

and the All-Holy Spirit; but Constantine maintains that this saying must not be

applied whenever the Lord is considered. to be one hypostasis having the two

natures united, but applied only when the flesh is considered to be separated

merely conceptually from the Divinity so that what belongs to His humanity can

be comprehended (but the supremely theological Damascene clearly taught

that this purely abstract distinction is not used whenever a statement is made

indicating some natural property of Christ's flesh, but rather when a statement

manifests either servitude or ignorance); therefore to Constantine who was not

willing to follow the Holy and Oecumenical Fourth and Sixth Councils, which

dogmatized rightly and piously concerning the two natures united unconfusedly

in Christ and which taught the Church of Christ to believe rightly, and who

thus destroyed himself in diverse heresies,

Anathema (3)

To all them who are of one mind with this same Constantine of Bulgaria and

who suffered and lamented over his deposition, not out of pity, but because

they have been led astray by his impiety,

Anathema (3)

AGAINST JOHN IRENICUS

To the most unlearned John Irenicus the champion of falsehood and vanity,

and to those things composed by him against the writings of piety, and to

them who embrace his words and who believe and say, that not because of the

humanity which our Lord Jesus Christ, our Saviour and God holds within Himself,

and which is enhypostatic and united inseparably, indivisibly and unconfusedly

with His Divinity, did He, as perfect man, say in the Holy Gospels; 'The

Father is greater than I,' but they say rather that this phrase is to be considered

as being spoken by Him according to His humanity in the same manner as

when, by an act of abstract thought, His humanity is divested and entirely divided

from His Divinity, and as if it had never been united thereto and as it it were

like our common nature,

Anathema (3)

To the conclave that raged against the venerable icons,

Anathema (3)

To them who consider the declarations of Divine Scripture against the idols

as referring to the venerable icons of Christ our God and His saints,

Anathema (3)

To them who knowingly have communion with those who insult and dishonor

the venerable icons,

Anathema (3)

To them who say that the Christians draw near to icons as if they were gods,

Anathema (3)

To them who say that another besides Christ our God delivered us from the

deception of idols,

Anathema (3)

To them who dare to say that the Catholic Church at one time had accepted

idols, and thus they overthrow the entire mystery, and blaspheme the

Faith of the Christians,

Anathema (3)

Whoever would defend an adherent of any heresy which disparages the

Christians, or would defend someone who died in that heresy, let him be,

Anathema (3)

If anyone does not worship our Lord Jesus Christ depicted in the icons

according to His humanity, let him be,

Anathema (3)

To all the heretics,

Anathema (3)

To Barlaam and Acindynus and to their followers and successors,

Anathema (3)

THE CHAPTERS- AGAINST BARLAAM AND ACINDYNUS

To them who at times think and say that the light which shone forth from the

Lord at His Divine transfiguration is an apparition, a thing created, and a

phantom which appears for an instant and then immediately vanishes, and who

at other times think and say that this light is the very essence of God, and thus

dementedly cast themselves into entirely contradictory and impossible positions;

to such men who, on the one hand, raving with Arios' madness, sever the

one Godhead and the one God into created and uncreated, and who, on the

other hand, are entangled in the impiety of the Massalians who assert that the

Divine essence is visible, and who moreover, do not confess, in accord with the

divinely-inspired theologies of the saints and the pious mind of the Church, that

that supremely Divine light is neither a created thing, nor the essence of God,

but is rather uncreated and natural grace, illumination, and energy which everlastingly

and inseparably proceeds from the very essence of God,

Anathema (3)

Again, to those same men who think and say that God has no natural energy,

but is nought but essence, who suppose the Divine essence and the

Divine energy to be entirely identical and undistinguishable and with no apprehensible

difference between them; who call the same thing at times essence and

at times energy, and who senselessly abolish the very essence of God and reduce

it to non-being, for, as the teachers of the Church say, "Only non-being is

deprived of an energy" to these men who think as did Sabellios, and who dare

now to renew his ancient contraction, confusion and coalescing of the three

Hypostases of the Godhead upon the essence and energy of God by confounding

them in an equally impious manner; to these men who do not confess in

accord with the divinely-inspired theologies of the saints and the pious mind of

the Church, that in God there is both essence and essential, natural energy, as

a great many of the saints, and especially all those who gathered at the Sixth

Oecumenical Council, have clearly explained with respect to Christ's two energies,

both Divine and human, and His two wills; to those then who in nowise

wish to comprehend that, even as there is an unconfused union of God's essence

and energy, so is there also an undivided distinction between them, for, among

other things, essence is cause while energy is effect, essence suffers no participation,

while energy is communicable; to them, therefore, who profess such

impieties,

Anathema (3)

Again, to those same men who think and say that every natural power and

energy of the Tri-hypostatic Godhead is created, and thereby are constrained

to believe that the very essence of God is also created, since, according

to the saints, created energy evidences a created nature, whereas uncreated

energy designates an uncreated nature; to these men who, in consequence, are

in danger now of falling into complete atheism, who have affixed the mythology

of the Greeks and the worship of creatures to the pure and spotless faith of

the Christians and who do not confess, in accord with the divinely-inspired theologies

of the saints and the pious mind of the Church, that every natural power

and energy of the Tri-hypostatic Godhead is uncreated,

Anathema (3)

Again, to those same men who think and say that through these pious doctrines

a compounding comes to pass in God, for they do not comply with

the teaching of the saints, that no compounding occurs in a nature from its natural

properties; to such men who thereby lay false accusation not only against

us, but against all the saints who, at great length and on many occasions, have

most lucidly restated both the doctrine of God's simplicity and uncompoundedness

and the distinction of the Divine essence and energy, in such a manner so

that this distinction in no way destroys the Divine simplicity, for otherwise, they

would contradict their own teaching; to such, therefore, as speak these empty

words and do not confess in accord with the divinely-inspired theologies of the

saints and the pious mind of the Church, that the Divine simplicity is most

excellently preserved in this God-befitting distinction,

Anathema (3)

Again, to those same men who think and say that the name 'Godhead' or

'Divinity' can be applied only to the essence of God, but who do not confess

in accord with the divinely-inspired theologies of the saints and the pious

mind of the Church, that this appellation equally pertains to the Divine energy,

and that thus one Godhead. of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is by all means still

professed, whether one apply the name 'Godhead' to Their essence, or to Their

energy, as the divine expounders of the mysteries have instructed us,

Anathema (3)

Again, to those same men who think and say that the essence of God is communicable,

and. who thus without shame strive to subtly introduce into

our Church the impiety of the Massalians, who of old suffered from the malady

of this same opinion, and who thus do not confess in accord with the divinelyinspired

theologies of the saints and. the pious mind of the Church, that the

essence of God is wholly inapprehensible and incommunicable, whereas the

grace and energy of God are communicable,

Anathema (3)

To all the impious words and writings of these men,

Anathema (3)

To Isaac, surnamed Argyros, who suffered throughout his life with the malady

of Barlaam and Acindynus, and though at the end of his life the

Church asked, as formerly She had often done, for his return and repentance,

he nevertheless remained obdurate in his impiety and in the profession of his

heresy, and wretchedly vomited forth his soul,

Anathema (3)

To Arios, the first to fight against God, and the leader of every heresy,

Anathema (3)

To Peter the Fuller and fool, who said 'Holy Immortal, Who was crucified

for us,'

Anathema (3)

To Nestorios, the cursed of God, who said that the Holy Trinity suffered, and

to the godless and mindless Valentinos,

Anathema (3)

To Paul of Samosata and Theodotion, his like-minded confidant, and to

another Nestorios,

Anathema (3)

To Peter the Paltry, the heretic, who was surnamed Lycopetrus, or 'the Wolf,'

to the evil-minded Eutychius and Sabellios,

Anathema (3)

To James Stanstalus the Armenian, to Dioscorus the Patriarch of Alexandria,

to the godless Severus, as well as to the like-minded Sergius, Paul and

Pyrrus, and to Sergius, the disciple of Lycopetrus,

Anathema (3)

To all the followers of Eutychius, to the Monothelites, the Jacobites and the

Artzivurites, and generally to all heretics,

Anathema (3)

HERE COMMENCES THE PRAISE OF THE ORTHODOX EMPERORS

WHO HAVE GONE TO THEIR REST

To Andronicus Paleologus, our renowned and blessed emperor, who convoked

the first council against Barlaam, and who vigorously championed

the Church of Christ and that sacred council both by deeds and by words and

by marvelous orations to the people with his own mouth; he made steadfast the

evangelical and apostolic dogmas, while he both put dawn and publicly

denounced Barlaam together with his heresies, his writings and his vain words

against our Right Faith; he was blessedly translated from this life and passed to

that better and blessed state during these, his sacred endeavors and valiant

deeds for the sake of piety,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Gregory, the most holy Metropolitan of Thessalonica, who in the Great

Church synodically put down both Barlaam and Acindynus, the leaders

and inventors of new heresies, together with their villainous company, men who

dared to aver that the natural and inseparable energy and power of God, and in

short, all the natural properties of the Holy Trinity, are created, who dared to

call the unapproachable light of the Godhead which shone forth from Christ

upon the mountain, 'created divinity,' and strive once again to wickedly introduce

into the Church of Christ the Platonic ideas and those other Greek myths;

to this Gregory, who by means of his writings, words and arguments, wisely and

most gallantly led the fight in defense of the common Church of Christ and of

the true, infallible dogmas pertaining to the Godhead, and proclaimed one

Divinity and one almighty God of Three Hypostases, possessing both energy

and will, and untreated in all His properties, as is in accordance with Divine

Scripture, and its interpreters the theologians, that is, Athanasios, Basil, Gregory,

and John of Golden speech, and Cyril, and together with them, the wise

Maximus, and the divinely eloquent Damascene, and moreover all the fathers

and teachers of the Church of Christ; to this Gregory, who was manifest by his

words and deeds to be the fellow-communicate, companion, ally, emulator and

comrade in arms with all these saints,

Eternal Memory (3)

To all those men, together with the aforementioned renowned and blessed

emperor Andronicus, and indeed, those who ruled after him, who contended

for the defense of Orthodoxy in discourse and debates, in writings and

teachings, in every word and act, who vigorously championed the Church of

Christ, who in the Church confuted and publicly denounced the malicious and

multiform heresies of Barlaam and Acindynus and their like, and brilliantly proclaimed

the dogmas of piety taught by the apostles and the fathers, and for this

very reason were repudiated by the impious, and were defamed and disparaged

along with the sacred theologians and our Godbearing fathers and teachers,

Eternal Memory (3)

To those who confess one Tri-hypostatic and almighty God, Who is not only

uncreated with respect to His essence and His Hypostases, but also with

respect to His energy; to those who declare that the energy of God proceeds

from His Divine essence, but proceeds inseparably, and who thus indicate by

the term 'procession' the ineffable distinction between the Divine essence and

energy, and by the term 'inseparably' their supernatural unity, even as the Holy

Sixth Oecumenical Council proclaimed,

Eternal Memory (3)

To those who confess that even as God is uncreated and unoriginate with

respect to His essence, so is He untreated and unoriginate with respect to

His energy (unoriginate in the sense that the Divine energy is timeless); and to

those who declare that God is in every way incommunicable and incomprehensible

with respect to His essence, but is communicated to the worthy with

respect to His Divine and deifying energy, as the theologians of the Church profess,

Eternal Memory (3)

To those who confess that the light which shone forth ineffably upon the

mountain at the Lord's Transfiguration is unapproachable light, boundless

light, an incomprehensible effusion of the Deity's resplendence, unutterable

glory, the transcendently perfect and praeter-perfect and timeless glory of the

Godhead, the glory of the Son, the Kingdom of God, true and lovable beauty

which encompasses the Divine and blessed nature, the glory natural to God,

and the Divinity of the Father and the Spirit flashing forth in the Only-begotten

Son, as our divine and Godbearing fathers have said, Athanasios the Great and

Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, John Chrysostom, and moreover John

of Damascus, and who therefore maintain this supremely Divine light to be

uncreated,

Eternal Memory (3)

To those who affirm the light of the Lord's Transfiguration to be uncreated,

and do not assert that this is the super-essential essence of God, since the

Divine essence remains in every way unseen and uncommunicated; 'No man

hath seen God at any time,' that is, as the theologians explain, as He is in His

nature; but who say rather, that this is the natural glory of the super-essential

essence, the glory which proceeds inseparably forth from thence and, by God's

love for men, shines upon those who are purified in mind, with which glory, as

the theologians of the Church teach, our Lord and God will appear in His second

and dread Coming to judge the living and the dead,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Michael, our Orthodox emperor, and Theodora his holy mother,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Basil and Constantine, Leo and Alexander, Christopher and Romanus,

Constantine, Romanus, Nicephorus, and John, Basil and Constantine,

Andronicus, and Romanus, Michael, Nicephorus, Isaacios, Alexius, and John,

Manuel, who by the divine and angelic Habit was renamed Matthew, monk,

Isaacios, Alexius, and Theodore, who all exchanged an earthly kingdom for the

Heavenly,

Eternal Memory (3)

To John Ducas of pious memory, our ever-memorable emperor, who by the

divine and angelic Habit was renamed Theodore monk,

Eternal Memory (3)

Without

To Michael Paleologus the New, of pious memory, our ever-memorable

emperor,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Andronicus Paleologus of pious memory, our ever-memorable emperor,

who by the divine and angelic Habit was renamed Anthony, monk,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Andronicus Paleologus, who is at rest with the pious, our ever-memorable

most pious and Christ-loving emperor,

Eternal Memory (3)

To John Catacuzenos, who is at rest with the pious, our ever-memorable,

most pious and Christ-loving emperor, who by the divine and angelic Habit

was renamed Ioasaph,

Eternal Memory (3) Without

To Eudocia and Theophano, Theodora and Helen, Theophano and

Theodora, Catherine, Eudocia, Maria, Irene and Maria, who by the divine

and angelic Habit was renamed Xenia, nun, Euphrosyne, Anna, and Helen, the

most pious Augustae,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Irene of pious memory, our pious and ever-memorable queen, who by

the divine and angelic Habit was renamed Eugenia, nun,

Eternal Memory (3) Without

To Theodora of pious memory, our ever-memorable queen, who by the

divine and angelic Habit was renamed Eugenia, nun,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Irene of pious memory our ever-memorable queen, Eternal Memory (3)

To Maria of pious memory, our ever-memorable queen, who by the divine

and angelic Habit was renamed Xenia, nun,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Anna of pious memory, our ever-memorable queen, who by the divine

and angelic Habit was renamed Anastasia, nun, who by deeds and words

with her whole soul struggled throughout her life for the establishment of the

Apostolic and. Patristic Dogmas of the Church and the overthrow of the evil

and atheist heresy of Barlaam and Acindynus and of those who were of like

mind with them,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Irene of pious memory, our ever-memorable queen, who by the divine

and angelic habit was renamed Eugenia, nun,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Germanus, Tarasius, Nicephorus, and Methodius, the ever-memorable

and blessed patriarchs,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Ignatius, Photios, Stephen, and Anthony, Nicholas, and Efthymios,

Stephen, Trypho and Theophylactos, Polyeuctus, Anthony, Nicholas,

Sisinius, Sergius, Eustathius, Alexius, Michael, John, Constantine, Cosmas,

Eustratios, Nicholas, Leo, Michael, Theodotus, Luke, Michael, Chariton,

Theodotus, Basil, Nicetas, Leontius, Dositheus, Meletius, Peter, George,

Michael, Theodore, John, Maximus, Manuel, Methodius, who by the divine and

angelic Habit was renamed Acacius, monk, Manuel who by the divine and

angelic Habit was renamed Matthew, monk, the Orthodox patriarchs,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Germanus, who rests in blessedness, the ever-memorable patriarch, who

by the divine and angelic Habit was renamed George, monk,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Arsenius, who rests in blessedness, the most holy and ever-memorable

patriarch,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Joseph, who rests in blessedness, the most holy and ever-memorable

patriarch,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Athanasios, who rests in blessedness, the most holy and ever-memorable

patriarch,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Gerasimus, the most holy and ever-memorable patriarch,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Esaias, the most holy patriarch,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Isidore, who rests in blessedness, the most holy and ever-memorable

patriarch,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Callistus, who rests in blessedness, the most holy and ever-memorable

patriarch,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Philotheus, who rests in blessedness, the most holy and ever-memorable

patriarch, who unwaveringly struggled for the Church of Christ and her

right dogmas with words and actions, discourses, teachings, and writings,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Christopher, Theodore, Agapius, and John, Nicholas, Eliu, and

Theodore, Basil, Peter, Theodosius, Nicephorus, and John, the ever-memorable

patriarchs of Antioch,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Damian, Basil, Constantine, Nicephorus, Leo and Sisinius, Basil, and

Joseph, Michael, and Christopher, Nicephorus, George, Pantoleon, and

Alexander, Cosmas, and Constantine, Theophanes, Peter, John, Nicetas,

George, Nicholas, and John, the Orthodox metropolitans,

Eternal Memory (3)

To Michael, Metrophanes, Meletius, Ignatius and Maximus, the ever-memorable

metropolitans of Old Patras,

Eternal Memory (3)

HERE IS MADE THE ACCLAMATION OF THE KINGS,

PATRIARCHS, AND ALL THE LIVING.

THE HOLY TRINITY HATH GLORIFIED THEM.

Let us beseech God that we be instructed and strengthened by their conflicts

and struggles unto death for the sake of piety and by their teachings, and

let us fervently pray to be shown forth unto the end as imitators of their godly

conversation. May we be deemed worthy of the fulfillment of our petitions by

the compassions and grace of the great and first High Priest Christ, our true

God, by the intercessions of our most glorious Lady Theotokos and Ever-Virgin

Mary, of the Godlike Angels, and of all the Saints. Amen.

FROM THE COUNCIL OF 1583

From old Rome have come certain persons who learned there to wear Latin

habits. The worst of it is how, from being Romans of Rumelia bred and

born, they not only have changed their faith, but they even wage war upon the

Orthodox dogmas and truths of the Eastern Church which have been delivered

to us by Christ and the divine Apostles and the Holy Councils (or Synods) of

the Holy Fathers. Therefore, cutting off these persons as rotten members, we

command:

That whoever does not confess with heart and mouth that he is a child of the

Eastern Church baptized in Orthodox style, and that the Holy Spirit proceeds

out of only the Father, essentially and hypostatically, as Christ says in the

Gospel, shall be outside of our Church and shall be anathematized.

That whoever does not confess that at the Mystery of Holy Communion the

laity must also partake of both kinds, of the Precious Body and Blood, but

instead says that he will partake only of the body, and that that is sufficient

because therein is both flesh and blood, when as a matter of fact Christ said and

administered each separately, and they who fail to keep such customs, let all

such persons be anathematized.

That whoever says that our Lord Jesus Christ at the Mystic Supper had

unleavened bread (made without yeast), like that of the Jews, and not leavened

bread, that is to say, bread raised with yeast, let him depart far away from

us and let him be anathema as one having Jewish views and those of Apolinarios

and bringing dogmas of the Armenians into our Church, on which account

let him be doubly anathema.

Whoever says that our Christ and God, when He comes to judge us, does

not come to judge souls together with bodies, or embodied souls, but

instead comes to sentence only bodies, let him be anathema.

Whoever says that the souls of Christians who repented while in the world

but failed to perform their penance go to a purgatory of fire when they

die, where there is flame and punishment, and are purified, which is simply an

ancient Greek myth, and those who, like Origen, think that hell is not everlasting,

and thereby afford or offer the liberty or incentive to sin, let him and all

such persons be anathema.

That whoever says that the Pope is the head of the Church, and not Christ,

and that he has authority to admit persons to Paradise with his letters of

indulgence or other passports, and can forgive sins as many as a person may

commit if such person pay money to receive from him indulgences, i.e., licenses

to sin, let every such person be anathema.

That whoever does not follow the customs of the Church as the Seven Holy

Ecumenical Councils decreed, and Holy Pascha, and the Menologion with

which they did well in making it a law that we should follow it, and wishes to fol-

low the newly-invented Paschalion and the New Menologion of the atheist

astronomers of the Pope, and opposes all those things and wishes to overthrow

and destroy the dogmas and customs of the Church which have been handed

down by our fathers, let him suffer anathema and be put out of the Church of

Christ and out of the Congregation of the Faithful.

Done in the year of the God-man 1583 (MDLXXX-111), year of indiction 12,

November 20.

Signed

Jeremiah of Constantinople

Silvester of Alexandria

Sophronius of Jerusalem

In the presence of the rest of the prelates at the Council."